Karolina Kaźmierczak-Siedlecka, Wojciech Makarewicz
The use of probiotics in prevention and treatment of gastric and colorectal cancer
The composition of gut microbiota depends on many factors, such as age, life style (eating habits and the level of physical activity), pharmacological treatment (antibiotics, side effects of anti-cancer therapy) as well as surgical procedures. The gut microbiota is involved in carcinogenesis process. Furthermore, gut dysbiosis is described as qualitative and quantitative alterations in gut microbiota and it is observed in cancers. For instance, in patients with colorectal cancer the increased amount of Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bacteroides fragilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus bovis as well as Peptostreptococcus anaerobius is noted. It was confirmed that amount of several specific bacteria, such as Lactobacillus, Escherichia-Shigella, Nitrospirae, Burkholderia fungorum and Lachnospiraceae, is increased in patients with gastric cancer. However, the major carcinogen involved in gastric carcinogenesis is Helicobacter pylori; it causes mucosa inflammation, mucosa atrophy, and as a consequence development of gastric cancer. Nowadays, there are several therapeutic methods, which may be used to alter the composition and the activity of gut microbiota. They include administration of probiotic strains, prebiotics, and synbiotics. Probiotics can be used to prevent the development of gastric and colorectal cancer, which was shown in many in vivo and in vitro studies. According to the most recent trials, probiotics reduce the incidence of diarrhoea associated with enteral nutrition. Probiotic strains may also be used as a supportive therapy in treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. Notwithstanding, they can play a supportive role in standard eradication treatment due to reduction of adverse events of antibiotics. Probiotics decrease the incidence of infections in postooperative period, the frequency of abdominal pain, and radiation-induced diarrhoea. To sum up, probiotics may be used to prevent the development of cancer and they may significantly improve the efficiency of standard anti-cancer therapy.
Keywords: colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, probiotics, microbiota.
© Farm Pol, 2020, 76 (2): 118–124