Schizofrenia - patologia i farmakoterapia
Schizophrenia - pathology and pharmacotherapy. Schizophrenia is devastating brain disorder that affects approximately 1% of the population. Manifestation of illness is observed predominantly during late adolescent period. The risk of schizophrenia is directly proportional to degree of genetic relatedness to an affected individual, and there is a population of genes susceptible for the risk of schizophrenia, however genetic liability alone might not be sufficient to precipitate a full schizophrenic syndrome. Genetic predisposition must interfere with environmental factors like prenatal infections, stress etc. Several data indicate that during schizophrenia brain organization is different from respective controls seen as ventricular enlargement volume of certain brain structure and morphology of certain populations of neurons. Also malfunction of several neurochemical systems has been observed as malfunction of dopaminergic, serotoninergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission. The typical treatment of schizophrenia is based on the neuroleptic drugs. Availability of a new generation of narcoleptics blocking not only dopamine D2 receptors, but influencing serotoninergic receptors of 1A and 2A subtype improved effectiveness of treatment, and reduced unwanted site effects.