Szczepionki i szczepienia przeciw wirusowym zapaleniom wątroby
Vaccines and vaccination against viral hepatitis. The paper describes different approaches to vaccination against viral hepatitis of specific etiology, and current use of existing vaccines. At present, vaccines against viral hepatitis type A and B are available everywhere. Vaccination against hepatitis type B has been supported by the WHO as an important step in the control of serious infectious diseases. In 1992 WHO recommended that vaccination against hepatitis type B should be included in the immunization programmes of newborns worldwide. A large number of countries have done it, and it resulted in a better control of viral hepatitis type B. Vaccination programme in Poland has been successful and during the last 10 years a steady decline of acute hepatitis B cases is continuously noted. Vaccination against hepatitis A is less frequently performed, mainly among travellers to endemic areas and military personnel going to missions in such places. However, a number of countries is currently vaccinating general population. Vaccination against hepatitis B helps to control viral hepatitis type D. It has been clearly shown in the epidemiological studies performed in Italy that hepatitis D is declining. However, the major contemporary problem with viral hepatitis is related to infections with hepatitis C virus. The prophylactic vaccine is not available and the at present perspectives concerning development of such a vaccine are not optimistic. Therefore, therapeutic vaccine against hepatitis type C has been prepared and it is currently undergoing clinical trials. The vaccine against hepatitis type E has been prepared. It is at present tested in clinical trials, and their positive results suggest that it will soon be available.