Renata Gadzała-Kopciuch, Ewa Siemieniuk, Elżbieta Skrzydlewska, Bogusław Buszewski

Chromatografia żelowa w oznaczaniu związków aktywnych biologicznie

Gel chromatography in determination of biological-active compounds. Gel chromatography, also named gel permeation chromatography (GPC), i.e. size exclusion in organic solvents, was introduced in 1964 with cross-linked polystyrenes by John C. Moore. Other names such as gel chromatography, exclusion chromatography, molecular sieve chromatography, gel exclusion chromatography, size separation chromatography, steric exclusion chromatography, and restricted diffusion chromatography have been utilized to reflect the principal mechanism for the separation. The fundamental mechanism of GPC is based on the separation of macromolecules in solution according to their molecular sizes. The stationary phase consists of small polymeric or silica-based particles that are porous and semirigid to rigid. Sample molecules that are smaller than the pore size can enter the stationary-phase particles and, therefore, have a longer path and longer retention time than larger molecules that cannot enter the pore structure. The aim of the present review is to explore the most recent analytical applications of GPC in the purification, fractionation and determination of different compounds from biological matrices.