DR. VILMA GUDIEN, DR. ALMANTAS BAGDONAVIČIUS
W GUBERNIACH WILEŃSKIEJ I KOWIEŃSKIEJ W KOŃCU XIX
I NA POCZĄTKU XX WIEKU
Nationalities of pharmacists in Vilnius and Kaunas provinces at the end of the 19th century - in the beginning of the 20th century. The government of the czarist Russia used to disperse inhabitants of various nationalities throughout the whole empire in an attempt to assimilate them. The national constitution of dwellers was determined not only by an unconstrained choice of a dwelling-place but by political motives as well. The aim of this work is to ascertain the national constitution of pharmacists of Vilnius and Kaunas provinces in 1890-1914, to reveal a motive to become a pharmacist among Lithuanians. In 1890-1914 the majority of pharmacies in Vilnius and Kaunas provinces belonged to Lithuanians, the Poles and Jews. The proportion of them was changing gradually. From 1890 to 1914 the number of Lithuanian pharmacists, who were the owners or heads of a pharmacy, was decreasing in Vilnius province, however, the number of Poles and Jews was increasing. Meanwhile, the number of Lithuanians was increasing, and the number of pharmacists of other nationalities was decreasing in Kaunas province during the same period of time. The increase of the number mentioned above was mainly influenced by a national movement of Lithuanians. An important role in the formation of modern Lithuanian society was played by pharmacists who in the beginning of the 20th century were one of the most numerous parts of Lithuanian intelligentsia. They chose a job in a pharmacy not as a mission of life but due to political, social and economic reasons. They used to found pharmacies in various provinces of Russia most often and it is supposed that only 10 percent of Lithuanian pharmacists used to work in their native country. Living and working in a Russian environment, however, they enshrined national patriotic ideas, were active participants in social activities, and wished to unite all Lithuanians living in czarist Russia, struggle against denationalization, induce people to return to their country and work for its good.