MARIA SZUMIŁO, IWONNA RAHDEN-STAROŃ
BIOLOGICZNA ROLA FOSFOLIPAZ
Biological role of phospholipases. Phospholipases are a diverse group of enzymes, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycerophospholipids forming free fatty acids and lysophospholipids - phospholipase A; generate phosphatidic acid (PA) and choline - phospholipase D or yield diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol-1, 4, 5-triphosphate (IP3) - phospholipase C. Phospholipases activities have been described in multiple organisms, including bacteria, plants, yeast and mammals. In mammalian cells, phospholipases have been implicated in the intracellular signal transduction, membrane stability and fluidity, in vesicle transport, endocytosis, exocytosis, and ion channels function. Mammalian phospholipases are regulated by many factors including intracellular calcium ions, phosphatidylinositol - 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), protein kinases and small G-proteins. In this review, we discuss the structure and biological function of phospholipases A, D and C and their implications in various human disease.