Nanomaterials and oxidative stress
The development of nanotechnology brings many benefits in a variety of areas of life, from industry to nanomedicine. Unique features of shredded matter to dimensions below 100 nm determine this. In addition to the developed surface of active nanomaterials (NMs), the benefits are also found in the repetitive shapes of nanoparticles (NPs). For these reasons, NPs can penetrate deep into biological systems to the subcellular level. They can act as carriers for drug molecules or take part in modern anticancer therapies. Unfortunately, for the same reasons, they also carry toxicological hazards, the best known of which is oxidative stress (OS). This mechanism was recognized for metallic NPs participating in the Fenton reaction to form a hydroxyl radical (•OH). Non-metallic NPs such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or crystalline silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs) can initiate defensive signaling cascades that result in overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), followed by inflammatory reactions resulting in apoptosis or necrosis. The paper presents the above issues preceded by the NMs and OS characteristics in the current approach.
Keywords: nanotoxicology, nanomaterials, mechanisms of toxicity, oxidative stress, carbon nanotubes
© Farm Pol, 2018, 74(7): 427-432