Katarzyna Kwas, Marcin Mostowy, Paweł Kozielewicz, Joanna J. Sajkowska-Kozielewicz
Review of the drugs currently used in the treatment of pain in osteoarthritis
Pain associated with musculoskeletal system disorders is very often the reason why patients seek medical advice. This is also the case for osteoarthritis (OA) where the pain is the first and dominant symptom which greatly reduces the quality of life. OA is the most common disorder of the musculoskeletal system. In fact, this disease affects approximately 17% of Polish society, therefore early diagnosis and correct treatment are of utmost significance. Along these lines, it is well-known that untreated osteoarthritis can lead to exacerbation of symptoms, severe contracture, a severe deformation of the joint, and eventually permanent disability. Therefore, pain reduction and improvement in joint mobility should be the objectives of the therapy. Pharmacotherapy in osteoarthritis is based on paracetamol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, e.g. diclofenac, naproxen, meloxicam, nimesulide, celecoxib), symptomatic slow-acting drugs for osteoarthritis (SYSADOA), or opioids. Additionally, injections with corticosteroids, platelet-rich plasma or hyaluronic acid, as well as sesamin- and polyphenol-rich diet, have been reported to effectively relieve pain, and hence, to increase the quality of life. Multiple factors, such as side-effects and activity profile of a given drug, have to be considered before the therapy. It needs to be noted that optimal therapy in osteoarthritis should consist of pharmacotherapy combined with non-pharmacological methods, such as physiotherapy, bodyweight monitoring, regular physical activity, not overloading the joints, well-balanced diet and education. Importantly, it should be pointed out that treatment needs to be planned individually with the active participation of the patient since the selected method depends on the severity of the lesions as well as on the patient’s expectations. This review describes and critically assesses the current literature about existing treatments for the different stages of the osteoarthritis, including pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods.
Keywords: pain, osteoarthritis, pharmacotherapy, physiotherapy, conservative treatment.
© Farm Pol, 2020, 76(10): 592–599