Dawid Wardecki, Małgorzata Dołowy
Prostate cancer – current treatment options
Prostate cancer and the therapeutic possibilities of its treatment are currently a very important topic studied by scientists and doctors from around the world. This is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in a group of men, in particular over 50 years of age both, in Poland and other countries. The course of the disease varies from mild to very severe. Malignant forms of the disease, on the other hand, are characterized by a high risk of death, therefore rapid treatment is necessary in this case. The symptoms of early‑stage prostate cancer are nonspecific. Patients usually feel an urge to urinate or a burning sensation during micturition. Advanced stages with bone metastases are manifested by severe bone pain. The basic biomarker, the elevated level of which may indicate prostate cancer, is PSA (prostate-specific antigen), tested in blood serum. Treatment of prostate cancer depends on many factors, such as the course, stage, or age of the patient. We distinguish between surgical treatment (removal of the prostate gland) and pharmacological methods. Unfortunately, not always surgical intervention causes a clear reduction in PSA, which is why scientists’ work is focused on finding newer and better pharmacological agents.
The common ability to develop resistance to treatment is a major problem. The main groups of drugs used in hormone therapy are steroidal and non-steroidal antiandrogens. These groups differ from each other in terms of their chemical structure as well as their action and safety level. Modern hormone therapy based on new generation non-steroidal anti-androgen drugs is an important therapeutic option that increases the effectiveness of patient treatment, i.e. gives the possibility of prolonging survival, delays metastases, and is also sometimes used as a palliative method. This work presents a literature review on new therapeutic options for the current treatment of prostate cancer with particular emphasis on anti-androgen drugs belonging to the latest generations.
Keywords: prostate cancer, steroidal antiandrogens, nonsteroidal antiandrogens.
© Farm Pol, 2022, 78 (5): 268–276