Alina Cherniienko, Anna Pawełczyk, Lucjusz Zaprutko

Various types of pharmacies-museums on the example of the Lviv city

Study subject. Traditionally, museums are places are places for collecting and exhibiting collections of historic objects, products and documents. Currently developing forms of museology use many new ways of reaching diverse recipients. The means of transmitting historical knowledge are becoming more and more interactive, adapted to the needs and expectations of modern target groups. The same also applies to pharmaceutical museums. Among them, pharmacies-museums and museum-pharmacies should be distinguished, depending on the predominance of the role performed. Apart from them, there are also pharmaceutical museums without a pharmacy function and historic pharmacies that do not pretend to have museum functions, but nevertheless exhibit their historical resources in a minimalist and usually utilitarian way. Recently, preserved historic pharmacy spaces have also appeared and are used for other, non-pharmacy purposes. These are restaurants, cafes, confectioneries, banks and art galleries. The city of Lviv is an excellent example of coexistence and mutual complementation of the range of forms and types of museum services provided.

Aim of the work. Using the example of historical pharmacies in Lviv, it was decided to specify the definition of pharmacies-museums, taking into account the form of their operation and functions performed, as well as the target group for the tasks of their activities. This classification was adopted as a criterion for determining a short “pharmaceutical tourist route” leading through almost all the distinguished forms of “historical pharmacy spaces”.

Material and methods. In the part describing the classification of pharmaceutical museums and historical objects, reference is made to the basic acts of Polish legislation in this field and their representative studies, interpretations and comments. The part presenting selected pharmacies in Lviv and the methods and scope of their functioning is based on the authors’ own experiences and observations, supported, where possible, by appropriate scientific studies, as well as documentary publications and guides, as well as subjectively selected material from websites.

Results. At the Old Town Square, right next to the famous Lviv Town Hall, there is the “Under the Black Eagle” Pharmacy, the longest and continuously operating one, still in the same location. A typical, separate museum with documentation, archival and exhibition functions which has been operating there for almost 60 years. Due to its unique character, it was titled as a National Museum a long time ago. A much newer pharmacy museum in Lviv is the “Under the Hungarian Crown” Pharmacy. Apart from its exhibition character, with an extremely characteristic window, it has a prominent educational role, addressed mainly to young recipients. It is here, in the basement of the “Secret Pharmacy” that interactive shows are held, encouraging people to explore the secrets of pharmaceutical art. Another way of using pharmacy interiors for exhibition purposes in Lviv, although not typical for museum purposes, is the famous Mikolash’ Pharmacy. This is the same “Under the Golden Star” Pharmacy where the world’s first kerosene lamp was lit in the mid-XIX century. Today it is a café-patisserie, fortunately with its reconstructed interior design preserved. Each of these objects has its own branded product, classified as pharmaceutical products for advertising purpose, in the first one it is the “iron wine”, in the second, among others, “pills from boring work” and in the pharmacy-cafe, raspberry cassis and medicinal cahors. Moreover, near the above-mentioned objects, there is the “St. Mary’s Pharmacy” with extremely rich pharmacy furniture, and another Pharmacy previously called “Under the Roman Emperor Titus”, although not very rich in historic furniture, but carefully caring for the bust of its patron and the image of its first owner.

Conclusions. On the basis of the proposed classification and the above-mentioned, still functioning pharmacies, a Lviv’s educational “the history of Lviv pharmacy tourist route” was proposed, starting in the classic “Under the Black Eagle” museum and ending with a relaxing break over coffee and cake in the “Under the Golden Star” pharmacy.

Keywords: history of pharmacy, pharmacies-museums, role and functions of pharmacies-museums, historic pharmacies of Lviv, tourist end educational “trail of the history of Lviv pharmacy”.

© Farm Pol, 2024, 80(2): 75–90


Various types of pharmacies-museums on the example of the Lviv city

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